groupe de travail Droits de l'Homme et Dialogue Interculturel

Retour à la page précédente

Télécharger ce document au format Word 6 (Mac/PC)

Shyama Prasad Rout 1999

Centre for Political Studies

School of Social Sciences

Jawaharlal Nehru University

New Delhi - 110067.




Tribal people's rights being a part of the broad human rights phenomena has acquired significance in recent times. As human beings the people who live in tribal lands acquire a similar set of rights like others. Being citizens of the country they are entitled to a number of privileges as well. From time immemorial there have been violations of their fundamental rights. In contemporary society the state comes to their rescue to some extent. The increasing awareness of the concept of human rights under the aegis of the UNO, world media, NGOs etc. proves beneficial to the victims.

Human rights are those conditions which are inherent to nature and without which one can not live as a human being. These rights and fundamental freedoms allow one to develop fully and use one's human qualities, intelligence, talents and conscience to satisfy one's spiritual, physical, social and other needs. They are based on human kind's increasing demand for life in which the inherent dignity and worth of each human being will receive respect and protection.

Human rights constitute a variable category as is adequately demonstrated by the history of the last few centuries. The list of human rights has been modified and continues to be modified in changing historical circumstances. Thus rights may not be fundamental by nature. That which appears to be fundamental in a given historical era or civilization is not fundamental in other era or civilization. Since the time of Hobbes and Locke, liberal political theorists have made it their primary purpose to explore relationships between the individual and the State..lh9

It is not enough to think in terms of two level relationship, the individual at one level and the State at another nor is it enough if the nation is added. Considering the heterogeneity of mankind and of the population of virtually every existing State it is also necessary to think of ethnic communities and certain other kinds of groups, and to include them among the kinds of rights and duties bearing units whose inter relationships are to be explored.

Rights that belong to individuals may go the them either as human beings or as members of a group. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights enumerates rights of the first sort ; they go to, "everyone.... without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status".

With regard to the legal rights of groups, ethnic communities are sometimes treated as political units within countries, both through territorial delimitations and through the use of separate electoral rolls. Ethnic communities in many countries are differently treated with respect to rights of property and residence; it is not only a question of territorial reservation for the indigenous but also a question of special measures designed to make it possible for the communities to preserve their distinctive identify. In case of less advanced groups that have suffered discrimination, it is now not uncommon to give them a right to expect special measures (affirmative action) designed to promote their quality, e.g. in the educational and economic realms.

Human rights are often held to be inter-related and mutually complementary. According to this view the 'first generation,' civil and political rights form the bedrock of 'second generation' economic, social and cultural rights, while collective and solidarity rights, such as the evolving indigenous rights constitute a 'third generation' of human rights. Further human rights are often said to be compatible with the rule of law and representative democracy. As per Stig Toft. Madsen's (State, society and Human rights in South Asia) hypothesis, "some instances of human rights do not form an integrated whole but are rights in intergenerational conflicts."

The conflict according to Madsen is between the presently dominant 'first generation', civil and political rights professed and guaranteed by a liberal State accepting the ideals of democracy and rule of law and the rights of legal and political, cultural and economic autonomy enjoyed by tribal groups. The outcomes of the conflict between the two incongrous orders of rights has been a working understanding or compromise. While this compromise has guaranteed the survival of tribal cultures, it has also meant that the tribal in question have been denied many of the rights enjoyed by others. So the question is how the tribal autonomy or collective right to autonomy including legal autonomy have circumscribed first generation rights, democracy and the rule of law.

The recent international thinking on indigenous rights is exemplified by the draft of Universal Declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples. According to this draft, "indigenous people have the right to participate fully in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the state while maintaining their distinct political, economic social and cultural characteristics".

The Rio de Janerio Declaration on Environment and Development, adopted on 14th June, 1992 by the United Nations conference proclaims that states should recognize and duly support indigenous peoples' identity, culture and interest and enable their participation in the achievement of sustainable development.

Indigenous people and their communities have an historical relationship with their lands and are generally descendants of the original inhabitants of such lands. They have developed over many generations a holistic traditional knowledge of their lands, natural resources and environment. According to the Rio Declaration, they shall enjoy the full measures of human rights and fundamental freedoms without hindrance or discrimination. Their ability to participate fully in sustainable development practices on their lands have tended to be limited as a result of factors of an economic, social and historical nature.

The International Labour Organisation also in its convention No. 169, year 1989, on "Indigenous and Tribal Peoples", suggested that governments must consult with indigenous and tribal peoples within their countries on development projects and other activities effecting them. It provided for respect for their land rights. This right include protection of their lands and right to refuse displacement form their lands except in exceptional circumstances and against compensation.

Tribal Rights in India :-

At the time of independence the Indian Government inherited a large tribal population. The Govt. of India has made a number of plans to protect the rights of the tribals and to integrate them into national developmental planning. The Minority Commission, the National Human Rights Commission etc., are there to prevent atrocities against them and to bring their plight to national lime light. Above all, in the Constitution of India the rights of the tribals were explicitly recognized and clauses were included to permit positive discrimination in their favour.

But the evaluation reports have pointed out that these special provisions have so far failed to bring about any positive gains to the tribal population. As per the Planning Commission Document 1973, "Reviewing the policies and programmes of the proceeding Five Year Plans we are of the opinion that the efforts so far made for social and economic development of the scheduled tribes have not brought an appreciable change in their condition." There can be a number of explanations for the failure of the governmental programmes for tribal development. However, the oppression and appropriation of the tribal people by the economically and politically more powerful groups have led to tribal movements or tribal unrest. For instance, the Santal rebellion, the revolt by Birsa Bhagwan, the Praja Mandal Movement, the Tana Bhagat Movement, the Naxalbari Movement, the Jharkhand Movement etc., are all attempts by the tribal people to shake off the yoke of exploitation.

In recent times the traditional territories of the tribal people have been subjected to incursions. Their lands are taken away in the name of economic advancement of the country. But in return they receive landlessness, impoverishment and long term degradation of the environment on which they totally depend. For almost two centuries now, tribal communities, like many other non-tribal peasants and forest dwellers, have been witness to the collapse of their multiple relationship with the land, the forest and among themselves. The basis of their cultural ethos, their systems of meaning have faced the collective unslaught of outsider exploiters, the disruptive impact of proselytizing Christianity, and of foreign models of economic betterment which have been conceived without their participation and implemented without their consent. Laws like Land Acquisition Act and the Indian Forest Act legitimise the continuing decline in access and control over forest resources that are the basis of their subsistence economy.

Initiatives from the Bharat-Jan-Andolan, Shosit Jan Andolan, the Indian Council of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples, Adivasi Sangamams in South India, PUCL, PUDR etc., are indicative of these modest attempts to raise - fundamental issues and define an alternative political agenda that frontally challenges the institutions and structures of our bourgeois democracy.

State Policy and the Tribals :-

The edifice of colonial forestry was inherited by the Government of Independent India and immediately put to work in the service of the State's primary goals of repaid industrialization. The National Forest Policy 1952 underlies continuity of the colonial policy. It reinforced the claim of the State to exclusive control over forest protection and production. Significantly this policy identifies shifting cultivation as one of the main threats to State forestry. But in turn this affects the basic rights of the tribals to be dependent on forest resources. Hence, many tribal groups mounted a sustained challenge to the continuing denial of their rights. The Khanwar tribes of Madhya Pradesh protested in 1957 against revenue collection and called upon the people to defy forest laws which violated their customary rights. Their slogan, "Jangal Zamin Azad Hai", (forest and land are free gifts of nature) succinctly expressed the opposition to external control and commercial use. Another concept of conflict is the 'Contractor System' which is the modus operandi of forest working in India. The State's unwillingness to replace the contractor system has given rise to militant movements. Naxalite movement is one of the results of this type of exploitation.

Process of Depeasantization and Land Alienation :-

An overwhelming majority of the tribals are agriculturists. They owned the land in their own rights. Their entire life process was centered and built upon two major means of production i.e., the forest and the land. To understand the dynamics of land problem in the totality, one needs an understanding of the logic of the underlying forces that govern its ownership pattern. The specific economic form in which unpaid surplus labour is pumped out of the direct producers, determines the relation of the rulers and the ruled. Hence land problem of a particular area has to be understood from its historical perspective. Historical evidences are ample which proves the conception of depeasantization as a net result of the uneven structural changes that have taken place from time to time due to the commoditization of the tribal economy in which land plays a critical and predominant role.

Land Alienation as a Concept :-

As per Marx, in a Capitalist society an alienated man lives in an alienated nature and he performs estranged labour and the product of his labour becomes alien to him. Alienation as a concept is used by many social scientists in India, merely as a sociological phenomenon. Since land alienation is the crux of the depeasantization of the tribals, the concept assumes utmost importance in the analysis of tribal rights as a part of human rights discourse. The problem of land alienation is a much deeply connected phenomenon with full of contradictions related to the existing socio-economic order. The separation of land from the tribal communities can be understood in a more scientific way with the assistance of the theoretical formulations of the concept of alienation.

Alienation was defined by Hegel and was used by Marx to describe and criticise a social condition in which man far from being the active initiation of the social world seemed more a passive object of determinate external processes. Marx says, alienation is fundamentally a particular relation of property, involving involuntary surrender to autagonistic 'other'. Alienation is inherent in exploitative relations of production and its nature varies with that of exploitation. Hence alienation's manifestations also differs among societies based on slavery, serfdom and capitalism etc. Thus the concept of alienation may be interpreted to understand a specific problem of the tribals where land becomes the primordial source of exploitation and results in the creation of a society where exploitative production relations exit.

Violation of Land Rights :-

The question of land is not just result of the existing situation but its origin may be traced to the periods of deprivation of tribal lands or to periods of the withdrawal of their rights to exploit forest. Gradually, due to various structural changes within and outside the tribal systems, the more advanced groups forced the tribals either to retreat to the nearest jungles or to become landless labourers. Though land is the only source of their livelihood, as their other assets being extremely meagre, tribals were severally deprived. Basically, moneylenders, traders, the feudal lords, or the rich peasants exploit the tribals most. It is an established fact that there is a large scale alienation of lands which belong to the tribes and grabbers invariably in all cases are the non-tribes. This phenomenon has further been ruined by the emergence of new forces of production. Commenting on this, the National Commission on Backward-Areas Development (1980) says, "In a number of areas new industrial and mining complexes, many major irrigation projects were located in the tribal areas resulting in the submergence of extensive lands belonging to the tribals".

Also in the operations of denudation of forest on a massive scale tribal labour had been used to a great extent to clear off the forest area which was a method of the land lords to alienate the tribals from the forests. This further widened the gap between the tribal landless and landed gentry of the non-tribal communities.

Commenting on the problem of land alienation in tribal areas, the Committee on Plan Projects, Planning Commission, presented a report on the Tribal Development Programmes in 1969. The committee noticed that tribal lands in many areas passed into the hands of non-tribals, the legal prohibitions against such transfers notwithstanding. Sample studies in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and some other States have shown that transfers have taken place on large scale without the permission of the collector or other competent authorities as required by law. The loopholes were exploited by the money lenders and others and they continue to circumvent the legal provisions by entering into 'benami' or other clandestine transactions with the native tribals. The impotency of legislation to arrest this growing menace to the economic advancement of the tribal in such a situation is thus obvious.

Forms of Land Alienation :-

The first and foremost is the manipulation of land records. The unsatisfactory state of land records contributed a lot to the problem of land alienation. The tribals were never legally recognized as owners of the lands which they cultivated.

The second form of land alienation is reported to have taken place due to 'benami' transfers. The report of the study team of the Union Home Ministry (May 1975) pointed out that large scale transfers of ownership of the Adivasis' lands are being allowed to go out of hands through illegal and benami transactions, collusive civil proceedings etc., in which land remains to be in the names of the original owners who are reduced to the level of share croppers.

Another form of land alienation is related to the leasing or mortgaging of the land. To raise loans for various needs the tribals have to give their land as mortgage to the local moneylenders or to the rich farmers.

Encroachment is another form of dispossessing the tribals of their lands and this is done by the new entrants in all the places where there were no proper land records. Bribing the local Patwari for manipulating the date of settlement of land disputes, ante-dating etc., are resorted to claim the tribal lands.

Concubinage or marital alliance is another form to circumvent the law and grab tribal lands at no cost at all.

Fictitious adoption of the non-tribals by the tribal families is also another method to snatch the lands of the tribals.

Also the slackness in the implementation of the restrictive provisions encourages the non-tribals to occupy the tribal lands. Lands alienation which takes place in various ways has assumed alarming proportion threatening the right to life of the tribal population. Though the problem lies elsewhere, it is being unfortunately always interpreted as the handiwork of certain individuals like the moneylender, traders, land lords, etc, without understanding the class connection of these individuals. The unsystematic land records of the pre-colonial and colonial periods was followed by the present State. There was collection of 'taxes - (a strange phenomenon for the natives and it was the beginning process of alienation) in the tribal areas.

In the name of protecting the interest of the tribals stringent laws were enacted by the government but the non-tribals found the loopholes to their advantage. This double edged nature of State policy in one of the facets of the existing contradictions in the Indian Tribal Society. The process of land alienation is not an accidental one, but it has arisen because of the concerted efforts of the antagonistic class interest that are operating in the tribal areas. This is not just migration of the non-tribals into tribal areas rather there is a history behind this migration and the State has supported the migrant non-tribals to the settle down in the tribal lands.

However, being the natural owners of forests and its adjoining lands the tribals are being deprived of their rights to own them. They have been relegated from their earlier 'self-reliant' status to a 'dependent' one. Coupled with the exploitation by the non-tribals, the State legislations also proved detrimental to their interests. Therefore to understand the root causes of the land alienation process of the tribal communities its relationship with the changes in the socio-economic structures have to be understood properly.

Case Study of Mayurbhanj District in Orissa :-

Orissa occupies a special position in the tribal map of India. In the State the Scheduled Tribes Constitute 22.21%. There are 62 different types of tribes in the State. Mayurbhanj is one of the most tribally dominated districts, lying at the Northern border of Orissa. This district was formed in 1949 out of the ex-State of Mayurbhanj. The percentage of Scheduled Tribes in the district in nearly 58.56%. The district is extremely important from anthropological point of view. It is inhabited by almost all the important tribes found in the eastern region of India through it is a fact that only a few of them have a concentrated settlement here e.g. the Santals, Hos, Bhunyas, Bhumijas, Bathuris and Gonds etc. The basic tribal population of the district is therefore formed by these six principal tribes.

As it has happened in other tribal parts of this country, the tribals of Mayurbhanj are also not spared off. Land alienation is rampart here. Due to poor economic conditions and illiteracy the tribes have not been able to understand the vicious circle thrown by their non-tribal exploiters. The Tribal Research Bureau conducted surveys and studies to analyze the relationship between the tribals and non-tribals who settled down in tribal areas e.g. an untouchable caste, Dom and Pano, the first non-tribals to settle down on the hills, live in intimate relationship with the Kandhas and Saoras of South Orissa. Similarly milkmen oilman and others live with the Juangs and Paudi Bhunyas of North Orissa. Many researchers put this relationship of the tribals with the non-tribals as parasitism but sometimes a symbiotic relationship is also found between them. Indebtedness among the tribals is a chronic malady. Schemes by the State Government have been bogged down in bureaucratic red-tapism. According to the Tribal Research Bureau the original purpose of these schemes is lost sight of. The two major steps by the Govt. of Orissa to prevent land alienation of the tribals are,

(i) Orissa Scheduled Areas Transfer of Immovable Property (by STs) Regulation, 1956, provides for the control and check of the transfers made by the scheduled tribes to the non-scheduled tribes in the Scheduled Areas.

(ii) Also outside the Scheduled Areas, alienation of land of the scheduled tribes has been restricted under Orissa Land Reformed Act, 1960.

Though Mayurbhanj possesses enormous forest wealth, the tribal people have no freedom to enjoy its benefits. Even for making agricultural implements they have to seek permission of the authorities. Permission to cut fire wood is available on payment of a stipulated amount. Sardari system of collection of land revenue gave enough scope for the feudal practices to survive. In the Colonial revenue administration Sardars, Tehsildars and Lakrajdars were the intermediaries. Notwithstanding various welfare measures introduced by the Colonial Government, there seemed to be a deep-seated unrest among the peasants of Mayurbhanj which provided congenial atmosphere for the growth of Prajamandal Movement during 1930s and 40s.

The tribal composition of Mayurbhanj is another important aspect of its history. The tension between the tribals and non-tribals often resulted in violent outburst leading to direct intervention by the Govt. The Kol insurrection and the Bamanghaty disturbances were instances which speak of tribal's refusal to accept a alien system.

However, in order to understand the present tribal problem of land alienation in Mayurbhanj a general background of the land structure of the district is to be analyzed starting from the pre-colonial phase. Also an analysis is to be made to understand the changing pattern of the land structure in Orissa's plains and its effect over the neighboring forest regions that lead to the fast depeasantisation of the tribal communities. As this depeasantisation has emerged as a criteria of the class antagonisms, its effects are to be examined in the district. Above all, the failures of State Govt.'s policy and the result of such failures are to be found out.

However, there is an imperative to project the land alienation of the tribals as human rights violation and to bring to attention of the government as well as non-government agencies. Nowadays the awareness of human rights brings about a certain awakening and often generates courage of tribals to stand up for their own rights. As far as the concept of tribal rights are concerned the challenges are to make the tribals aware of judicial systems, prepare them for political participation, create opportunity for equality, prepare them for self-governance to guarantee rights to traditional natural resources, provide them land rights etc.

Also the Tribal - Sab-Plan, the Bhuria Committee Recommendations, the Constritution's 73rd and 74th Amendments etc., are the recent endeavours by the State to remove socio-economic backwardness of the tribal population and to integrate them into the national mainstream of development and progress. .lh8.8

Survey of Literature :-

Land Alienation in Tribal Areas

B. Janardhan Rao,

Kakatiya School of Public Administration, Warangal

(A.P), India, November, 1987.

This book written by B. Janardhan Rao in based on empirical studies of tribal areas in Andhra Pradesh, particularly of Warangal district. Very aptly he discusses the concept of alienation in the beginning. Starting from Hegel to Marx he points out the structural functionalist approach to it. Then he gradually proceeds to examine the existing land laws and administrative arrangements of Andhra Pradesh Govt., as far as the tribal areas are concerned. The process of depeasantisation has also been highlighted. He identified the agents who reign in the regime of exploitation in tribal areas.

Though he has pointed out the causes of land alienation yet he fails to give possible solutions to prevent it. Moreover, he has not dealt with the bigger aspect of human rights violation of the tribal population as a result of land alienation.

Encroached and Enslaved

Philip Viegas,

Indian Social Institute, New Delhi, 1991

This book deals with the land alienation of the tribals and its impact on their socio-economic structures. Starting from agrarian changes, the author has properly delt with the extent of land alienation and the processes that lead it to happen. As far as sampling is concerned he has taken four districts of Orissa namely Ganjam, Dhenkanal, Koraput and Phulbani. For this empirical study he took assistance from the local NGOs operating in these areas. It is significant that he has given suggestions towards a people's solution to the problem.

However, this study is more of an anthropological in nature and does not deal with tribal people's rights as such. It hardly associates the land alienation problem with other socio-economic issues. The question of rights and privileges of the tribes are also not fairly dealt with.

Objective of the Study :-

As the basis of the study is land alienation in Tribal areas, the focus will be on its causes and the processes that lead to it. There shall be an analysis of indigenous and tribal peoples rights at the international level, especially at the United Nations Organization. There shall be an endeavour to relate the tribal peoples' basic rights to the human rights discourse. At the national level, policy announcements, statements, documents highlighting government policies with respect to forests and prevention of land alienation is to be analysed. However, particular focus will be on the policies of Govt. of Orissa towards the prevention of encroachment in tribal lands. Starting from the conceptual level of 'alienation' to the land rights of the tribals are to be given importance. A general background of the land structure of Mayurbhanj district, starting from the pre-colonial phase is to be examined to find out the discrepancies against the tribal population. The changing pattern of land structure in plains and its impact on the tribal lands is to be highlighted. Also the process of land alienation which leads to depeasantisation among the tribals is to be examined with its causes and effects. However, throughout the study there shall be an attempt to project the process of land alienation among tribals as violation of land rights as part of tribal people's rights.


1. The concept of 'alienation' is fundamentally a particular relation of property.

2. Land alienation is not a mere 'structuralist-legalist' phenomenon rather it is related to the existing socio-economic order.

3. Land alienation gradually leads to depeasantisation of the tribals and hence violates their basic rights to life.

4. The dynamics of tribal land problem is related with the ownership pattern in adjoining plain lands.

5. The relationship of non-tribals with that of tribals is not of symbiosis but of parasitism.

6. Increasing industrialization in the tribal belt have led to their impoverishment, displacement, alienation and violation of their rights.

7. Unscrupulous forest policy has led to pauperisation and violent unrest among the tribal population.

8. Decentralized developmental process involving voluntary agencies at the grass root level have made the tribals increasingly aware of their rights and privileges.

Tentative Chapterisation :-

1. Emergence of human rights as a global movement and indigenous and tribal rights as a part of it.

2. Alienation as a concept.

3. Demographic profile of the tribes in Orissa.

4. Land Alienation among the tribals in Mayaurbanj district.

5. Govt. of Orissa's policies on Forest and Tribal Lands.

6. Effects of land alienation and depeasantisation among tribals in Mayurbhanj.

7. Industrialization and its effects on tribal people's rights.

8. Conclusion.

Methodology :-

The present study of land alienation and tribal people's rights in Mayurbhanj, Orissa is both explorative and analytical. It is sought to construct, through the analysis of primary and secondary data, the history of land alienation in the district and the reasons thereby. The documents of government policies would be analysed to find out the loopholes. Proper sampling shall be done in the district to verify the extent of land alienation. Indepth sample interviews, questionnaire and field study in Mayurbhanj itself would provide primary data on which this whole research is based. Published works by eminent authors shall also be consulted during the research.


Primary Sources

1. Annual Reports of the NHRC, 1993-94 & 1994-95.

2. Civil Rights : Past and Present, Calcutta, APDR, Publication (1986).

3. District Gazeteer, Mayurbhanj Orissa, 1996.

4. Documents of State Minority Commission, Orissa.

5. NHRC Documents, A Guide to the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993.

6. Workshop paper, Indigenous and Tribal Rights in the Asia/Pacific Region. Minority Rights Group, 1996, New Delhi.

7. Govt. of Orissa's, "The Orissa Scheduled Areas Transfer of Immovable Property (by STs) Regulation Act, 1956," and "Orissa Land Reforms Act, 1960."

8. Documents of Tribal Research Bureau on Orissa.

9. Documents of PUCL & PUDR on Human Rights Violation in Tribal areas.

Secondary Sources


1. Agarwal, R.S. - Human Rights in the Modern World, New Delhi, Chetana Publication (1974).

2. Bailey, F.G. - Tribe Caste and Nation : A Study of Political Activity and Political Changes in Highland Orissa. University of Manchester Publication, Manchester (1971).

3. Bardhan, A.B., The Tribal Problems in India. Communist Party Publication, Ajay Bhavan, New Delhi, 1973.

4. Basu, D.D. - Human Rights in Constitutional Law, New Delhi, Prentise Hall of India Private Limited (1994).

5. Baxi, Upendra, In-Human wrongs and Human Rights, Har Anand Publication, New Delhi (1994).

6. _____ (ed) The Rights to be Human, New Delhi, Lancers International (1987).

7. Bentham, David (ed) - Politics and Human Rights, Oxford Blackwell Publication (1995).

8. Bobbio, Norberto, - The Age of Rights, Polity Press Cambridge, U.K. (1996).

9. Casser, Antari - Human Rights in Changing World, Temple University Press, Philadelphia (1990).

10. Desai, A.R., Repression and Resistance in India, Bombay Popular Publication (1990).

11. _____, Violation of Democratic Rights in India, Bombay, Popular Publication (1986).

12. Dube, S.C. & Ratna Murdia (ed) - Land Alienation and Restoration in Tribal Communities in India, Himalaya Publishing House, Bombay, 1977.

13. Dworkin, R. - Taking Rights Seriously (New imp) London, Duckwouth (1978).

14. Gadgil, D.R. - Human Rights in Multi-national Society, Poona, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics (1986).

15. Gupta, Vinay. K. - (ed.) Perspective in Human Rights, New Delhi, Vikas Publication House Private Limited (1996).

16. Iyer, V.R. Krishna - Human Rights and the Law, Indore, Vedal Wadhawa (1984).

17. Kothari, Rajani - State Against Democracy, In Search of Human Governance Delhi, Ajanta Publication (1988).

18. Kothari, Smitu & Harsh, Sethi - (ed) Rethinking Human Rights Challenges for Theory of Action, New York, Delhi, New Horizons Press (1989).

19. Kymlicka, Will (ed.) - The Rights of Minority Cultures, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1995).

20. Madsen, Stig. Toft - State Society and Human Rights in South Asia, Qun Manohar Publication, New Delhi (1996).

21. Mohapatra, Sitakanta - Modernisation and Ritual : Identity and Change in Santal Society, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1986.

22. Pandey, Ajit, K. - Kinship and Tribal Polity A Comparative Study of the Mundas and Oraons of Bihar, Rawat Publication, Jaipur (1989).

23. Patel, M.L. - Changing Land Problem of Tribal India, Progress Publishers, Bhopal, 1979.

24. Praharaj, D.M. - Tribal Movements and Political Hisotry in India, A Case Study from Orissa 1803-1949, Iter-India-Publications, New Delhi, 1988.

25. Rao, Janardhan. B. - Land Alienation in Tribal Areas, Kakatiya School of Public Administration, Wanamgal (A.P.), India, 1987.

26. Roy Burman, B.K. - Indigenous & Tribal Peoples : Gathering, Mist and New Horizon, Mittal Publishers, New Delhi, 1994.

27. Shastri, S.S. (ed.) - Human Rights Perspectives & Challenges, New Delhi, Lancers Books (1994).

28. Singh, K.S. (ed.) - The Tribal Situation in India, Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, Shimla, 1990.

29. Singh, Nagendra - Human Rights & the Future Mankind Delhi, Vanity Books (1981).

30. Mendelsohn, Oliven & Upendra Baxi, The Rights of the Sub-ordinated Peoples (ed.), Oxford University Press, Bombay, 1994.

31. Veigas, Philip - Encroached and enslaved : Alienation of Tribal Lands and its Dynamics, Indian Social Institute, New Delhi (1991).

32. Vidyarthi, L.P. (ed.), Tribal Development and its Administration, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi.


1. Balagopal, K, "What is Socialist Freedom"? EPW, April, 16, (1992).

2. Bana, J., "Western Education and Rise of New Identity: Mundas and Oraons of Chotanagpur," EPW, April (1997).

3. Banerjee, Tarun, Girijan Movement in Srikakulam, 1967-70, Society and Change, Vol.1, No.4, July-September, 1980.

4. Baxi, Upendra, "Sins of Commissions," Seminar, May, 1993.

5. Bhagwati, P.N. "Dimension of Human Rights," Mainstream, March, 15, 1986.

6. Bhowmick, P.K., "Tribes in the changing circumstances of India," Man of India, March (1991).

7. Chakravarthy, Nikhil, "Human Rights, Basic issues" Mainstream, October, 1992.

8. Chaudhari, Kaliyan, Indebtedness Among Tribals, EPW, Vol.X, No.47, November, 1975.

9. Chiriyankandatta, James, 'Human Rights in India: Concepts and Contexts,' Contemporary South Asia, Vol.2, No.3, 1993.

10. Dash, Tapan, R., "Inequality in Educatonal Development of Tribes in Orissa" Journal of educational Planning & Administration, January (1991).

11. Dogra, Bharat - "Tribal Discontent : Timely Warning," EPW, April 17 (1990).

12. Ghosh, G.K., "Lodha Tribes of Mayurbhanj A Case Study," Khadi Gramodyog, August (1990).

13. Haragopal G. & K. Balagopal, "The state and Civil Liberties movement in India on the last decade of the Twentieth century. Paper presented as the international Workshop on "State Democracy and Social Movement," Delhi (1992).

14. Howard, E. Rhoda, "Cultural Absolution and the Nostalgia to Community," Human Rights Quarterly, Vol.15, No.2 (1993).

15. Human Rights: "Politics of Accountability," Seminar New Delhi, No.405 (1993).

16. Khanna, G.N. "Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Some Recenet Policy Measures in India," Social Action, Vol.40, Jan-March (1990).

17. Kothari, Rajni, "Human Rights in Search of Theory, in Rethinking Human Rights : Challenges of Theory and Action," Lokayan, New Delhi, 1989.

18. Kothari, Smitu, "The Human Rights Movement in India: A Critical Overview," Social Action, Vol.40, Jan-March (1990).

19. Kulkarni, S.D. - Alienation of Adivasi Lands - Govt. not Serions EPW, Vol.IX, No.35, August 31, 1974.

20. Mohapatra, L.K. - "Development for Whom? : Developing the Dispossessed Tribals," Social Action, July-Sep. (1991).

21. Mohapatra, Shyam Sunder - "Santals in a Changing World : Socio, Cultural Study of the Santals of Mayurbanj, Orissa," Folklore, January (1991).

22. Mukhoty, Govinda, "Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993: An Analysis," Mainstream, December 18, Vol.XXXII, No.5, 1993.

23. Panda, P., "ICDS in Tribal Orissa: A Case Study," Indian Journal of Social Work, October (1990).

24. Parasuraman, S, "Economic Rights : Development, displacement and Modernization, CHRI Workshop, New Delhi (1996).

25. Rao, B.J., "Tribal Struggles in India: Organising for Change. CHRI Workshop, New Delhi (1996).

26. Rao, P., Venkata - "Liberalisation and STs: emerging Challenge," Indian Journal of Public Administration, July-Sep. (1996).

27. Ray. Ashwini, K. "Civil Rights Movements & Social Struggle in India," EPW, Vol.20, No.28, July (1986).

28. Reddy, B.R., "Language and Ethnic Identity : A case Study of Kondh Tribes," Asian Studies, April (1986).

29. Roy, Biren, "In Defence of Human Rights,": EPW, February 8 (1997).

30. _____, "Tribal Problem in India" Mainstream, January 20 (1990).

31. Roy, Himanshu, "Tribal Society in Tranisition," Teaching Politics (1990).

32. Sorabjee, Soli, J, "State of Human Rights," Social Action, Vol.40, Jan-March (1990).

33. Tarkunde, V.M, "Human Rights Commission : A welcome proposal," Human Rights Year Book, Published by International Institute of Human Rights Society, 1993.

34. ____, "Philosophical Background of Human Rights," Radical Humanist, 52(10) Jan, (1989).

35. Thakur, Ramesh, "Human Rights, Amnesty International and the UN," Journal of Peace Research, Vol.31 (1994).

36. Tyagi, Yogesh. K. "Human Rights in India; An Overview" International Studies, Vol.29, No.2, April-June (1992).